It is recommended to split a huge Rust project into crates and manage them in a workspace. I’m currently working on a project which consists of about 60 crates. It works well so far until I try to publish these crates to

I will list the problems I have met and solutions or workarounds I have adopted.

Update Cargo.toml has some requirements on Cargo.toml files:

  • Fields like license, authors, description, homepage, and repository are required.
  • Local crates via path must specify the version as well so the dependencies can be resolved via

The command cargo publish --dry-run will verify whether the file Cargo.toml is valid.

There’s No cargo publish --all

Cargo does not support publishing all local packages yet. It means that I have to cd into each crate and publish them separately.

There are two major issues here.

The first, if a crate foo depends on bar, a version of bar satisfying foo’s requirement must be available in before publishing foo. In the project I’m working on, all crates share the same version, and they lock the local dependencies using the exact version such as bar = "= 0.0.1". If I want to publish these crates, I must topologically sort them by dependencies first and publish them in that order. The newly published crate has a delay of up to 10 seconds before it is searchable. In my publish script, I’ll retry several times when cargo complaints that it fails to resolve a dependency.

Second, it is not atomic to publish the whole workspace. If I successfully published bar 0.0.1 and later fails to publish foo 0.0.1 because of a bug in bar 0.0.1, I have to yank bar 0.0.1, bump the version, and re-publish both foo and bar.

Cyclic Dependencies

The dev-dependencies may introduce cyclic dependencies. Take the example again that the crate foo depends on bar. This time the test cases of bar depend on foo. Cargo can resolve these cyclic dependencies because it does not need the dev-dependencies to build both foo and bar, so it can build bar, foo, and then bar test cases in order.

But cargo publish requires both dependencies and dev-dependencies are available in, now cyclic dependencies will cause problems.

It’s tedious to arrange the crates to resolve the cyclic dependencies, so I adopted this workaround to remove all the dev-dependencies before publish and run cargo publish --allow-dirty to ignore the dirty git working directory.

It Is Very Slow to Publish

Finally, it is really slow to publish 60 crates in a big project. It seems that they will not share the target directory and each crate uses its own directory inside target/publish. If the workspace has three crates, foo, bar, baz, where foo depends on bar, and bar depends on baz, cargo will take quadratic time to publish all the crates:

  • Build baz and publish baz.
  • Build baz and bar, then publish bar.
  • Build baz, bar, and foo, then publish foo.

The target/publish also takes a lot of disk space. After I published 60 crates, the folder occupied about 80G storage. If the publish host has limited disk space, the script must clean up the folder regularly.