The first paragraph

The first sentence joins the paper to the ongoing conversation.

It also can be followed by the core definition and why the conversation is important.

The rest of the first paragraph summarizes what is known in the conversation.


  • Switch point of view multiple times
  • Present points conflict with the paper conclusion.

The second paragraph

The second paragraph often starts with “However”. The purpose is to identify an unresolved theoretical issue, or in simple words, what is unknown.

The third paragraph

The third paragraph often starts with “The purpose of this paper is …”. It tells the reader what question the paper is going to answer. It is important that the answer must resolve the issue in the second paragraph.

The remaining of the third paragraph is a preview of how the paper answers the question.